Skip to main content

Full text of "Plywood"

See other formats


CONTENTS 



Page 

The Physical Properties of Plywood .... 3 

The Uses of Plywood 4 

The Range and Figure of Wood 6 

The Manufacture of Plywood 7 

Veneer Cutting 7 

Veneer Thicknesses 8 

Veneer Sampling 8 

The Manufacture of Faces ....... 9 

Crossbanding and Core Stock ...... 9 

The Construction of Plywood 10 

Glues Used in Plywood Construction ... 11 

Assembling of Plywood 12 

The Grading of Plywood 12 

Stock Plywood 13 

Douglas Fir Plywood 14 

Plywood in the Architectural Field .... 16 

How to Erect Plywood 17 

Panel Usage 19 



Page 

The Variety of Figures in Veneers .... 20 

California Pine Plywood 22 

Duali 22 

Weldwood 23 

Plywood in Shipbuilding 24 

Plywood in the Furniture Field 25 

Specifying Plywood 25 

Flexwood 26 

Micarta 28 

Armorply 29 

Glossary of Plywood Terms 30 

Available Woods for Special Plywood ... 31 

Plywood Carried in Stock 32 

Strength of Various 3-Ply Panels 33 

Advantages of Plywood 33 

Tests on Douglas Fir Plywood 34 

Prefabrication System in Housing .... 35 

Products and Branches of U. S. Plywood Co. 39 



We greatly appreciate the cooperation of the folloiving in providing us with some of the data contained in this book: 



U. S. Forest Products Laboratory 
American Walnut Manufacturers' Asso. 

HOMEFURNISHING ARTS 



American Architect 

Mahogany Association 

Behr-Manning Corp. 



The following illustrated and priced catalogs are obtainable on request: 

CATALOGS 

GENERAL PLYWOOD CATALOG 
FLEXWOOD ARMORPLY MICARTA 



J> 



UNITED STATES PLYWOOD COMPANY 



IN CORPOR ATED 



to 





|°lSo-*fo] 



FOREWORD 



SINCE NO HOME, however modest, is without some product made of Ply- 
wood, it is surprising to find so many who have never heard of it. Some, 
though generally familiar with Plywood, do not realize its infinite variety, 
physical properties, availability or cost. 

We are attempting herein to present our subject so as to inform the artisan 
about the product from its commercial side (the kinds, sizes and thicknesses 
available from stock) and to provide the architect and the engineer with 
technical data not generally available. While the basic principle of Plywood 
is easily understood, it is a large and complex subject which we have at- 
tempted to present and illustrate briefly and simply. 



V 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PLYWOOD 

WOOD is a non-homogeneous material. All of its weaknesses lie across the 
grain. Expansion and contraction under heat and moisture and the attendant 
defects, such as warping and checking, are due to cross-grain structural weak- 
ness. Wood has great strength and practically no movement the long way of 
the grain. To counteract these inequalities in the physical properties of wood, 
Plywood was developed many years ago. 

Plywood is the term used to describe a combination of several plies of wood 
glued together so that the grain of any one ply is at right angles to the 
adjacent ply. By balancing such construction, a product of great strength 
results, uniform in all directions, minimized in movement and providing a 
sound base for fragile figured veneers. Thus the inherent defects of wood 
are corrected and the resultant product presents large well-behaved flat or 
curved surfaces. Giant strides have been made in the technique of Plywood 
manufacture in recent years. 

The Steinway piano, the Victor radio and phonograph, the Philco radio 
and all high-class furniture and woodwork employ Plywood exclusively for 
all wide surfaces. Properly manufactured, it never fails. 



a 


H 



[3] 




Armor ply deadlight pant-Is on Burlington Zephyr. 



THE USES OF PL 




Yacht "Grey Cult" used l'l)uuud panelled ini 




Armor,! | 




I for floor bo 




The uses of Plywood run the gamut from baby car- 
riages to automobiles, from toy boats to giant ocean 
liners, and from the farmer's" utilitarian homestead 
to the finest hotels and apartment houses. In our 
roster of accounts will be found hundreds of names 
of outstanding concerns of the country employing 
plywood in a hundred different ways either for its 
Structural qualities, its beauty or both. 

A unique and important branch of our service is the 
manufacture of Plywood to meet engineering speci- 
fications. An example is found in the sensational 
streamline trains, the Burlington "Zephyrs," where 
ARMORPLY,* metal-covered Plywood, wa- used 
for the upper outside panels. These panels are 
specially constructed Annorply made with a face 
of thin stainless steel and backed with extremel) 
thin electrolytic copper. The edges oJ the steel are 
turned and soldered to the back so as to hermetic- 
ally seal the three-ply Basswood core [feneL A sim- 
ilar construction has been employed on new cars of 
the B.M.T. subway and the Boston & Maine stream- 
lined "Flying \ The Edward G. Budd Com- 



• 7/ 



■ 



[♦] 



)F PLYWOOD 



pany of Philadelphia is the manufacturer of all 
of these trains. 

Many of the finest aeroplanes employ United States 
Plywood Company products. For aeroplane con- 
struction, specially glued Birch and Mahogany 
panels and also panels faced with very thin duralu- 
min, applied with our patented elastic glue, are 
manufactured. Other products used on aeroplane in- 
teriors for decorative purposes are Flexwood and 
Micarta. 

Automobile manufacturers find Plywood the ideal 
material for floor boards. Not alone has it the 
strength to carry necessary weight, but it also has a 
high insulating value, keeping out cold in winter 
and heat in summer. 

Installations in office buildings, hotels, restaurants, 
elevator cabs and theatres show that Plywood as 
panelling may be used to beautify in a way which 
is not possible with any other material. Architects 
have, in our products, an inexhaustible field for use 
in modernization and new construction. 




Living room, panelled in Knotty Pine Plywood. 




Schwarz's Restaurant, New York. Walnut Plywood bar and Walnut 
panelling. 




Walnut Plywood in elevator cabs at Trinity Building, New York. 



m 




Mahogany Plywood piano case. 




Rotary-cut Walnu 

Book-matched, 



otch U ahiut. tii-ld 4-way match with 
Bubinga border laid diagonally. 



Stump Walnut field. Bubinga border 
and diagonally cut and matched dia- 
mond center. 



Figured Sliced Quartered Walnut. 
Field, diagonally cut book and end — 
matched; Diamond center. Redwood 
burl; Inner borders, Satinwoad ; 
Outer border, Redwood burl. 



THE RANGE AND FIGURE OF WOOD 

There are thousands of different woods which are cut into veneers but our listi is limited to those which can be 
obtained from the leading veneer houses for prompt delivery. These woods present a wide variety of color and 
figure and when it is remembered that each species of wood has a wide variation of color and figure and that 
cutting methods vary these further, it will be seen that obtainable effects are limitless. 
f (See list on page 31) 

The appearance of any species of wood is determined by: 

1 — Grain — which is the physical arrangement of cells or fibres. 

2 — Figure — which is the characteristic marking, usually across the grain, of individual trees. 

3 — Method of Cutting — (See page 7). 

Taking as an example a wood as generally well-known as Walnut, the following types are obtained: 
1 — Sliced Walnut 6 — Butt Walnut (Stump wood) 

2 — Plain Quartered Walnut 7 — Feather Crotch Walnut 

3— Figured Quartered Walnut 8— Burl Walnut 

4 — Half-round Walnut 9 — Claro Walnut (California) 

5— Rotary Walnut 10— French Walnut 

11 — Circassian Walnut 

If we were to examine the variety which the arrangement and design of Walnut on a panel can produce, such as 
diamond-match, reverse diamond, squares, book match, etc., it becomes apparent that hundreds of distinctly dif- 
ferent effects are available in one wood — WALNUT — alone. This is equally true of most cabinet woods. 
For your convenience in identifying woods, we append a chart which merits careful study. See page 31. 



Fig. 1 




Ft?. 2 


Fig. 3 


Fig. 4 


SI, red 11 al 


nut 


Plain 


Figured 


Half-Round 






Quartered 


Quartered 


Walnut 






Walnut 


Walnut 





Fig. 5 
Rotary 
Walnut 




Veneer slieer in operation. 
The steamed log descends 
against a stationary knife. 




THE MANUFACTURE OF PLYWOOD 

American standards of Plywood construction have been developed to produce 
a well behaved product. There are fifteen or more processes involved in 
the manufacture of fine Plywood from the cutting of the veneer to the sanding 
of the finished product. These, including the various gluing methods, are 
treated under separate headings. 

VENEER CUTTING 

Without considering the technique of manufacture, veneers are produced as follows: 

SLICED Cut on a long heavy knife after steaming or boiling the flitch. This is the method 

almost universally used in making fine veneers. The figure and grain may be partially 
determined by the position of the flitch in the log. 

ROTARY CUT Done on a lathe permitting the log to revolve against a knife. As these cuts are in part 
along the arc of the annular rings, the figure produced is fairly wild and therefore 
undesirable excepting in diffuse porous woods such as Birch and Maple. Rotary 
cutting, though frequently done on Walnut and Oak is practiced only where price is 
the determining factor and for centers and crossbands. 

HALF-ROUND This type of cutting is done on a lathe, the log being held off center. The figure is a 
compromise between rotary cutting and slicing. The results are often pleasing and 
veneers of wide width may be obtained. 

SAWN Excepting for heavy veneers and in quartering Oak, sawing is infrequently done 

because of the waste involved — approximately 1/16" of the wood being wasted for 
each veneer obtained. It is the only satisfactory method of making Quartered Oak 
veneers because the flake or figure produced by exposing the medullary or pith rays 
is shattered in slicing. Sawing however produces the best veneer as it leaves the wood 
fibre undisturbed. 





Picture of a veneer lathe with walnut log centered ready 
to begin cutting into veneer. 



[7] 



Rotary cut walnut veneer being torn and matched as it 
comes out of the lathe. 



VENEER THICKNESSES 

Practically all of the fine woods such as Walnut, Mahogany, Avodire, Satinwood, etc., 
are sliced 1/28" in thickness. Birch, Maple, Oak and Ash are usually cut 1/20" in 
thickness, either rotary cut, sliced or sawn. Any of these veneers are obtainable in 
other thicknesses. Unless there is some good reason for selecting other than standard 
veneer thicknesses, such as for doors or other purposes involving hard usage, standard 
veneer thicknesses should be specified. There is a considerable price penalty for using 
non-standard thicknesses and no selection from existing stocks is possible. Odd thick- 
nesses must usually be cut to order and since the figure and type of wood which any 
log or flitch will produce can only be approximately predetermined, the advantage 
of adhering to standard veneer thickness is obvious. Thin face veneers are technically 
and practically better than thick because internal stress is practically eliminated and 
glue impregnation holds the fibres together. In using a 1/28" veneer on the face of 
a panel, the remaining veneer thickness, after sanding, is approximately 1/32". This 
is standard practice. 

The standard veneer thickness on doors and door stiles and rails is 1/8". 

Veneer can be sliced as thin as 1/150" and on some woods as thick as 1/8". When 
greater thickness is desired, veneers must be sawn. 

VENEER SAMPLING 

In cutting veneer, the log is divided into sections called flitches. These flitches are 
steamed or boiled and then sliced by means of a heavy mechanical knife. As the figure 
or defects frequently change in cutting through the flitch, samples are chosen showing 
the top, bottom and center of the flitch. Sampling by means of a single piece of veneer 
is frequently misleading and often results in the choice of veneer which will not prove 
satisfactory either as to figure or dimension. Obviously it is necessary to be certain 
that the veneer, after trimming, is long enough to cover the maximum panel length 
and that too much waste is not involved. In most sound woods like Walnut or Mahog- 
any the quantity of veneer required is double the surface area of the Plywood. With 
Butts, Crotches or Burls it may require from four to six times the footage to cover 
a given area due to defects and shape irregularity. 







MAHOGANY VENEER 




" 'xipany 






^tnpe 



Vcnerr rut i 

tna< 






[8] 



THE MANUFACTURE OF FACES 

After the veneer is cut the sheets must be prepared for final gluing into Plywood and the 
important steps to consider are drying of the veneer and the subsequent manufacture of 
matched faces. The veneers are dried in a long heat and humidity controlled mechanical 
dryer. The sheets go in one end wet and come out of the other end dry and flat. The veneer 
then passes through a platen re-dryer. This type of dryer consists of a series of smooth flat 
steam-heated leaves or platens which are alternately squeezed together to flatten the veneer 
and opened up to allow the moisture to escape from the wood surfaces. 

The most important procedure from the angle of final appearance of the Plywood is the 
manufacture of the faces after the selected veneer has been cut and dried. 

The veneer is first cut by clippers to dimensions approximately one inch longer and wider 
than the finished dimension to allow for final trimming after gluing. The veneer is then 
laid out to insure the best effects possible, special care being taken on architectural Plywood 
to make certain that the most prominent panels receive the best parts of the flitch. 

The veneers are then put through an edge jointer to insure perfectly tight joints and are 
taped. Special care is taken that the character and figure as well as the color of the adja- 
cent pieces of veneer are accurately matched at each tape joint. In addition to taping the 
veneers in a face, it is standard practice with us to glue the edges of the veneer together 
under the tape. This is done by folding back the joints after taping and passing the exposed 
edges over a small glue roller. 

CROSSBANDING AND CORE STOCK 

Only one-piece crossbanding of soft textured woods (usually Poplar) should be used under 
face veneers as there is a danger of joints showing after the plywood is finished when 
jointed crossbandings are used. Veneer selected for the backs to properly balance the face 
veneer must be of similar type and density. 

In the manufacture of lumber cores selected Poplar and Chestnut are used. The lumber is 
kiln dried to 3-5% moisture content and then dimensioned for required sizes after which 
it is jointed and planed and ripped into narrow strips of 3-4 inches. These strips are edge 
glued and placed in a rotary clamp and allowed to dry until the glue sets. The cores are 
then placed once again in a kiln for drying and this is a most important step as the gluing 
process has increased the moisture content of the narrow lumber strips and this moisture 
must be removed. After redrying the cores are planed to required thickness and are then 
ready for use in the manufacture of the Plywood itself. 




Two-piece figured Sliced Walnut 





COURTESY OF JAMES L. TAYLOR CO. 

A Rotary Clamp Machine in which narrow lumber strips are edge glued 
for Plywood cores 



4 piece side and Butt matched 
Stumpwood (Butt) 



[9] 




HE CONSTRUCTION OF 

PLYWOOD 



It has already been explained how the crossing of the grain of alternating plies accom- 
plishes the purpose of rectifying the physical inequalities of wood. In making Plywood 
the laminae are so combined as to balance. 



STANDARD HARDWOOD CONSTRUCTIONS 

Faces & back* 

1/8" _3-ply Rotary (Veneer) core l/20"-l/28" 

3/16"— 3-ply Rotary (Veneer) core 1/20" 

1/4" — 3-ply Rotary (Veneer) core 1, 20" 

5/16"— 5-ply Rotary (Veneer) core 1/20" 

3/8" —5-ply Rotary (Veneer) core 1/20" 

1/2" — 5-ply Rotary (Veneer) core 1 20" 

5/8" —5-ply Rotary (Veneer) core 1/20" 

13/16"— 5-ply Lumber core.. 1/20" 

• Before sanding. 



Core 


Crossband 


1/20" 




1/8" 




3/16" 




1/8" 


1/20" 


1,8" 


1/12" 


3/16" 


1/8" 


3/16" 


3/16" 



11/16" 



1/20" 




The above construction practice will varj somewhat When I J core 

stock will be cul fuIL [n all cases it is important that corresponding plies on opposite 
rimilai thickness and charartiei in order fa i the Plywood 

properly. 

ertain ch lywood, equal plies of rotarj cul reneei an used to 

produce a required thickness. Ibis constructioo ii sd foi special types of Ply- 

si, u .. Maple «li« -board sta k. 



[10j 



GLUES USED IN PLYWOOD CONSTRUCTION 



RESINS The advent of resin glues, or certain of them, marks the most important development 

in Plywood manufacture. The resultant product is at once absolutely waterproof and 
the glue line impervious to bacterial deterioration. The wood itself is rendered imper- 
vious to rot for a depth of 1/16" adjacent to the glue line. Plywood made under this 
process is also impervious to alcohol, oil, mild acids and alkalies. 

The phenolic resins (Bakelite type) are the most important. They are derived from 
carbolic acid (phenol) and formaldehyde. The manufacturing procedure is a com- 
pletely dry process. The resin, either in the form of an impregnated fibre sheet, dry 
powder or dried coating, is spread on the inner veneers. These are then subjected to 
heat and pressure until the resin is converted into a thin sheet having the general 
qualities of Bakelite. 

Other resins, especially those in the lower price range, are used with varying results. 

Plywood made with phenolic resin glue is practically welded. Hence our product so 
manufactured is marketed under the trade-marked name "Weldwood." (See page 23.) 

COLD RESIN GLUES The resin glue described in the foregoing is applied under heat and pressure and 
when perfectly handled, produces a perfect product. Yet the process itself is quite 
delicate and human fallibility is always something of a hazard when heat penetration, 
pressure and moisture content of veneers must be calculated within narrow limits. 
Too, the removal, through heat, of practically all moisture so that Plywood must be 
dipped or sponged after pressing, at times introduces undesirable stresses. The possi- 
bilities therefore of obtaining the same results without the application of heat would 
seem to make for a most desirable type of adhesive. A cold resin glue has been 
developed which achieves similar results to those obtained by the hot plate resins 
simply, safely, at less cost. As they contain no water, these resins introduce so little 
moisture into the panel that redrying is not necessary. 



1 



VEGETABLE 



HIDE OR ANIMAL 



CASEIN 



BLOOD-ALBUMEN 



SOYA BEAN MEAL 



The base of vegetable glues is usually cassava flour (Tapioca). The resultant glue line 
is strong and enduring but has little water resistance. At least 90% of the commercial 
hardwood Plywoods are glued with vegetable glue because of low cost and easy adapt- 
ability to manufacturing processes. It may be classed as generally satisfactory when 
properly used for indoor installations and furniture which is not to be used in damp 
climates. 

These glues, derived from hides or bones of cattle, vary greatly in quality and price. 
They are rarely used in Plywood manufacture except for laying certain delicate face 
veneers which stain easily and in the manufacture of fireproof Plywood where other 
types of glue except resin, seem to deteriorate in contact with fireproofing salts. 

The base of these glues is casein, the precipitated solids of skimmed milk. These glues 
vary in quality depending upon the quality and uniformity of the casein itself and the 
formulae of the glues. In general, they produce a highly water-resistant Plywood, per- 
manent and of great strength. Plywood properly made with casein glues will withstand 
any climatic conditions including high moisture and humidity, but cannot be classi- 
fied as waterproof. 

The base of these glues is dried slaughter-house blood and they set or coagulate under 
heat. The process requires a hot-plate press between the platens of which the panels 
are heated under pressure. These glues are somewhat higher in water-resistance than 
the casein glues. The process makes the Plywood somewhat more expensive and, as 
the added degree of water-resistance is negligible, the use of blood is limited. It is 
sometimes used in conjunction with casein but these glues do not command an import- 
ant place in Plywood production, especially as they frequently deteriorate through 
bacterial action. 

The meal made from ground Soya beans, sometimes called vegetable casein, is not 
unlike the casein glues in its performance, especially on soft or coniferous woods 
such as Fir and Pine. While it is an inexpensive glue, it falls into that rare category 
of products which are at once cheap and good. Like all glues, its performance depends 
on its formula and skillful use. Practically all Fir and Pine Plywood is made with 
Soya Bean Meal glue. 



[ii] 



SPREADING 

After the veneers and cores are assembled they are passed through glue spreaders which accurately regulate the amount 
of glue needed for the best results. Some glues will stain certain woods if the glue is spread too heavily, or if its viscosity is 
too low; hence, both the preparation of the glues, and their application, are delicate and important operations. 



PRESSING 

The cold glues require pressure of from 100 to 200 pounds per square inch, which is obtained in an hydraulic press. This 
pressure is held usually over night by means of retainers. Heavy caul boards of hard wood, well waxed, are interposed 
between sets of panels to insure uniformity of pressure and freedom from warp. 

The process used in making the resin glued plywood (WELDWOOD) embraces the use of a hot plate press having a num- 
ber of openings. The glue, usually in sheet form, is dry and the hot plates are brought down upon the veneers, the heat and 
pressure forming the panels. This sounds exceedingly simple and it is, in theory, but when pressures, time for heat pene- 
tration, moisture content, etc., must be calculated on various thicknesses and types of wood, it will be seen that skill is 

required for uniformly perfect results. 



I 



REDRYING ASSEMBLING OF PLYWOOD 

Plywood must be "stuck" and re-dried in heat and humidity controlled kilns, after gluing, to eliminate excess glue moisture 
— unnecessary, of course, where the hot plate press is used. 

SANDING 

All fine plywood is passed through triple drum, endless bed sanders, and is then polished to a smooth finish under belt 
sanders. The finish is, of course, very important both to insure a smooth surface and to avoid extra labor on the job; this, 
too, is an operation in which skill is an important factor. Uneven sanding causes warpage. 

TRIMMING 

This operation is performed on equalized saws insuring perfectly rectangular cuts. 

PACKING 

Plywood is packed in heavy wooden crates under pressure, to keep it flat and avoid chafing. 

THE GRADING OF PLYWOOD 

The technical grading rules of Plywood permit many defects which are not found in Plywood of good manufacture and 
unduly complicate a really Bimple matter. The grades under which our Plywood is produced are listed herein. It should be 
remembered that these rules do not specify the fifteen or more processes which must be skilfully and scientifically followed 
to make an unassailable product. 

CABINET GRADE 

Cabinet grade panels are so manufactured as to meet the exacting requirements of fine cabinet work. They will show no 

defect under any finish and are made of highly figured and specially selected veneers, smoothly sanded and polished. 

STANDARD GRADE 

Standard grade panels are well made, faced with plain veneers, frequently rotary-cut and so designed as t<» In- satisfactory 

where a •_' ii rally plea-ing effect at moderate COSt ifi doired. 

EXAMPLE: A V CABINET grade Figured Gum panel is faced with \ 
highly figured veneer, center-matched, mounted on a om \ 

the fa< <■ vena ige glued. 

A M" STANDARD grade Figured Cum pane] is faced with a 
mildly figured veneer, ma) contain sap, is no! center-matched and 

may be produced with a pieced «■ 

Both Cabinet and Standard grades are made in good one side and good two sides. 

GOOD ONE SIDE 

This grade mean- that one face of the pant 1 is entirely free of defects of any kind. 

GOOD TWO SIDES 

B«»th -ides of this grade are of the same wood and entirely free of defects. This grade is used when both rifles of the panel 

are exposed. 

SOUND OR DRAWER BOTTOM 

Thii tirade presents one surface or side which is without open defect- hut permit- of occasional sound knots, discoloration 
and unmatched figure. 



[12] 




Prima I era 




Grey Hareuood 



Stock PLYWOOD 



Plywood is made where the trees grow. Fir and White Pine panels are made on the 
Pacific Coast. The fine hardwoods are manufactured in Michigan, Wisconsin and 
upper New York State. Hardwood Plywood of Gum and the lower priced woods 
emanate from the South. Each type of Plywood has a definite place in industry. 

In order to make these products from widely scattered sources readily available and 
to eliminate the excessive cost of manufacturing and shipping small quantities, they 
are brought to warehouses in carloads and shiploads. 

The sizes and thicknesses in each type of product have been standardized in accordance 
with trade practice. The cabinet maker lays out his work with these sizes in view, as 
do many architects. To make Plywood properly takes time and when time in transit 
is added, mill shipment is too slow for many projects. 

Considering the variety of color and figure in each of the woods, it is often important 
to see the actual material which is going into a job. Thus the architect and his client 
may examine and select. Many of the finer woods are carried in matched sets for the 
fine job which must be done quickly or for those who prefer to sec the actual material 
made up rather than to judge its appearance from the veneer samples. 

The United States Plywood Company. Inc., carries the largest stock of Plywood panels 
in the world in a network of warehouses from Coast to Coast, established at strategic 
points. While the priced catalogue (sent on request) goes into detail as to the various 
types, sizes and thicknesses carried, in general, they are as follows: 

DOUGLAS FIR 

Thicknesses 3 16", 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 5/8", 3 V 

Widths 24", 30", 36", 48" 

Lengths 48", 60", 72", 84". %", 120" 

WHITE PINE 

Thicknesses 1 8", 1/4". 3 8". 1 2", 5/8", 3/4" 

Widths 24". 30", 36", 48" 

Lengths 60". 72", 84", 96", 120" 

HARDWOODS (Ailon, Birch, Basswood, Duali, Gum, Mahogany, Maple, Oak, Orientalwood, 
Knotty Pine, Poplar. Walnut) 

Thicknesses.... 1/8", 1/4" 3-ply 3/8" 5-ply 1/2" 5-ply 13/16" 5-ply 

Widths 24", 30", 36" 24 w , 30", 36" 24", 30", 36" 24", 30", 36", 48" 

Lengths 18", 60", 72". 84" 60", 72", 84" 72" 60", 72", 81", 96" 

(Counterfronts 144" x 28", 36" and 42") 
All combinations of lengths ami widths are carried in panels good one side and good two b] 

For practical purposes, Plywood is divided into two main headings: 

SOFT WOODS: Fir and Pine. 

HARDWOODS: Plywood faced with hardwood veneers covering several hundred 
species, most of which are listed on page 31. 

The subject of Plywood from the angle of availability or distribution is likewise 
divided into two classifications: 

STOCK PANELS: Plywood of standard stock sizes carried on hand for immediate 
delivery from warehouse. 

MILL SHIPMENTS: Plywood manufactured on order to specifications required. 

Among the panels carried in stock will be found a number of inlaid figured panels 
for window backs. Aircraft Plywood. Weldwood — waterproof Plvwood for marine or 
technical use — Fireproof Plywood, Armorply — metal-covered Plywood — stiles and 
rails, die-boards, profiles. Micarta. 

The L'nited States Plywood Company, Inc., maintains a fleet of trucks at all of it- 
warehouses and makes immediate delivery of stock items upon receipt of order*. 

[13] 



■■ 





1 Sawing logs to length 



Rotary cutting 



Dryi 




Glue spreading 




5 Removing glued stock from hy- 
draulic press in retainer damps 




m 

6 v - ight drum sanil 



DOUGLAS FIR 

Plywood 



The great stands of timber still available in the United States are located in the States 
of Oregon, Washington and Northern California. Of these, Douglas Fir, sometimes 
called Oregon Pine, predominates. The trees grow to enormous size, not infrequently 
ten feet and larger in diameter and up to one hundred and fifty feet in height. 

Fir plywood is carried in enormous quantities in warehouses throughout the country. 
The product of the better mills is largely faced with one piece, unjointed veneers. It 
is truly a universal product and is put to endless uses. Fir plywood is not recommended 
for high-class paint or enamel work because the grain will raise and tiny hair-line 
checks are likely to develop. 

Fir Plywood is manufactured in the following grades: Good Two Sides, Good One 
Side, Sound Two Sides, Wallboard Sheathing. 

FIR WALLBOARD 

Fir Wallboard is cheaper, lighter, stronger and lend- itself to a greater variety of 
finishes than any of the synthetic wall boards. All of the latter are much the same, 
differing little in their basic materials, and at best are nothing more than glorified 
pasteboard. They have little tensile strength, are suitable only for paint finishes and, 
because of their porosity, require more paint to cover. Were it not for the extensive 
advertising and merchandising done by the various synthetic board manufacturers, 
these products would rapidly disappear as factors in the market for they are not only 
demonstrably inferior to Fir Wallboard but cost more. 

Perhaps the fad that Fir Plywood production has increased more than 300% during 
the depression net a sharp decline in the production of competitive materials, 

indicates that, on merit alone, this product is finding its market. 

Fir W T allboard is made with one good side the back being defective 



["] 



FIR PLYWOOD FOR STRUCTURAL PURPOSES 

For structural purposes, Douglas Fir Plywood is indicated because of its low cost, 
great strength, light weight and the ability to produce it in large sizes without pre- 
mium. Sizes as large as four feet by eight feet are standard and larger sizes may be 
obtained at additional cost. This Plywood is of approximately the same strength in 
all directions whereas the tensile strength of lumber may be twenty times as high 
parallel to the grain as across it. Because of the large sheets, a saving of from 40% 
to 757o over the cost of handling and installing lumber is possible. Douglas Fir Ply- 
wood is of uniform thickness, smoothly sanded on both sides. It weighs less than 34 
pounds per cubic foot. 

CONCRETE FORMS 

The use of Fir Plywood for concrete form work, though developed within the last few 
years, already runs into millions of feet annually. It produces smooth nnless work. 
Concrete form Plywood is shipped oil-treated from the mill, or may be coated with 
form oil obtainable from any of the refiners at low cost. 

Concrete form Plywood can be used from seven to ten times. It saves 40% to 75% 
of carpentry labor. It speeds up stripping. It gives smooth finless surfaces immediately. 
No costly rubbing or plastering is necessary. It is split-proof, non-bulging, ideal for 
reverse moulds. Large sizes reduce lineal footage of joints. It cuts with hand or power 
saws. Curves of sharp radius are possible. 1/4" Plywood dry will take a 16" radius; 
steamed for a few minutes it will take an 8" radius. 

SUB-FLOORING 

Used as a sub-flooring, Fir Plywood offers a combination of economies with other 
advantages not otherwise obtainable. A thickness of 3/4" 5-ply is generally used. It 
grips nails more tenaciously than lumber and, as it can not move appreciably because 
of its cross grain construction, it prevents open joints and squeaks. Fir Plywood is 
sold by the square foot in full measurement so that there is no tongue, groove or ship- 
lap waste. 

SHEATHING 

For virtually the same reasons which recommend it for sub-flooring, Fir Plywood is 
superior to tongue and groove sheathing. 1/4" thickness is usually used for this 
purpose. Tests at Leland Stanford University, details of which are available on request, 
show a minimum of elastic distortion, maximum load, maximum stiffness recovery and 
maximum resilience. This report recommends its use as sheathing especially in earth- 
quake areas. See Prefabrication System, page 35. 





CeUings 



Concrete Forms 



Sub Flooring 



[v 



PLYWOOD IN THE ARCHITECTURAL FIELD 



ARCHITECTURAL PLYWOOD follows architectural specifica- 
tions as to construction, size and type of veneer, samples of the 
actual veneer being submitted before manufacture. The veneer 
markets of the world are combed for rare and exotic woods and 
are submitted for architectural selection. 

FLAT PLYWOOD can be made in one piece up to 12' wide 
and practically any length in any thickness. It is necessary to 
bear in mind the length limitations of certain of the face 
veneers as well as the fact that very large panels carry a con- 
siderably higher price than those of medium size. 

CURVED PLYWOOD may be obtained in any radius down to 
6" and is substantially more expensive than flat. Forms mu>t 
be made for each curvature. We have a large number of curved 
forms at our mill for the use of which no charge is made. 
Blueprints of such forms or templates are available on request. 
All special panels are made to match, are numbered on the 
blueprints and on each unit to insure the proper placement of 
the panels for a desired effect. 




Afen'j Bar. Waldorf- i^toria Hotel, 
York City, 

architects: s< hi i.tze I WEAVE! 

INSTALLED B\ : 
JACOB FROEHL1CH CABINET WORKS 

All flat and curved wall surfaces and bar 

front are Fireproof Plywood faced uith 

Brazilian Rosewood, French Walnut, and 

Carpathian Elm Burl. 



At least three weeks should be allowed for delivery of custom- 
made Plywood, though delivery in ten days is sometimes pos- 
sible. Because of the gluing and drying processes, a reasonable 
time for manufacture should be allowed whenever possible. 

FIREPROOF PLYWOOD. This product should, of course, be 
called fire-resistant Plywood. It is manufactured to conform to 
the laws of the City of New York where all such material for 
buildings over one hundred and fifty feet in height must con- 
form to certain tests performed by Columbia University. 

The core of these panels is made of lumber which has been 
made fire-resistant by the impregnation of certain salts under 
pressure. The principle involved is to immerse the boards in a 
tank filled with saline liquid under pressure. When these boards 
are redded, the tiny particles of salts remaining in the cells of 
the wood prevent the entrance of oxygen to support combus- 
tion. Furthermore, the sails under heat give off carbon mon- 
oxide gas which is a strong fire retardant. Various types of salts 
are used and their general performance depends largely upon 
the depth of impregnation. 

The New York City laws permit 1/16" of non-fireproof wood 
on either side in one or two plies. Fireproof panels are some- 
times made of treated veneers in veneer construction, especially 
when they are curved. 

Probably the finest example of this type of work is the Men's 
Bar of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. All of these panels are of 
very large size and are faced with inlaid exotic woods. 

Those interested in fine Plywood work would do well to visit 
this room designed by architects Schultze and Weaver and 
erected by Jacob Froehlich & Sons from Plywood manufactured 
by us. 

There are other means of securing fire-resistant results with 
Plywood, such as the use of any of a number of asbestos prod- 
ucts in sheet form glued on the inside of a panel, hard asbestos 
sheets glued on the outside of a panel, and metal-faced Ply- 
wood BUch a.- ARMORPLV. 



[16] 



HOW TO ERECT 
PLYWOOD 



We have attempted to explain and illustrate the appearance of various woods 
and the manner in which they may be assembled in Plywood form in other 
pages of this book. We have then to deal with sheets of Plywood of practically 
any thickness, length or width faced with any of a large variety of woods, 
or several of them in such design as may best suit the effect desired. Our 
purpose here is to explain how these panels are to be erected. 

Any structure should be reasonably dry to receive Plywood. Wood is 
hydroscopic. It takes on moisture and while Plywood, especially Weldwood, 
is unaffected in its glue lines, it is unwise to offend the natural tendencies 
of wood unnecessarily. Warpage might result. Painting the back and edge of 
Plywood is good practice. A Plywood installation will outlive any building 
in which it is installed. There is no upkeep, only occasional re-waxing is 
desirable. 

THE FINE PLYWOOD JOB, either in period or flush construction, is always 
assembled by the cabinet maker in his shop. Such Plywood is usually 13/16" thick, 
5-ply with a core of lumber in the form of narrow strips edge glued over which the 
crossbanding and face veneers are applied. The cabinet maker will edge glue these 
panels to each other, dowel them every nine inches, and will further insure against 
separation and open joints by screwing battens the full length of the panels behind 
each joint. He will then build the panels into sections of such size as to permit their 
passage through the elevators or doors of the building, fastening the sections to the 
studding, which must be level, or on to the walls. The methods vary according to local 
conditions and the type of room. Large flush surfaces must be so treated as to accom- 
modate expansion and contraction because, while the crossing of the grain of the 
wood in alternate layers minimizes expansion and contraction, it does not entirely 
eliminate it. Especially in wide expanses such as twenty feet or more, the sections 
must be hung on metal in a manner such as to permit their movement or a space of 
an inch or so on either end must be provided and covered with moulding. The maxi- 
mum movement is generally 1/10 of 1% in either direction. 



[17J 



PLYW00D 




•DETAIL'^ • RAISED* PAhEL 

RAISED PANELS are made by machining the edges of thick Plywood in accordance 
with the desired pattern and tli- d is eithei stained to match the face of the 

panel or the i banded irith wood of the same kind when the panels are made. 

ih<* hitter of course being more expensive, tnothei satisfactory ind cheapei method 
of achieving raised panel effects can be accomplished with 3 8" panels sd in specially 
Mjn mouldings. • \- illustrated.) 









L__ 






— 



H'^U » ♦UM-MAUi/ift 





t 





















WOOD WtPOC JO>KT 



X 






















1 ■ , ■ ■), 











PI RI< >D DESIGNS paid 

i* |h»»m] i. 

I WWI NTIONA1 PI YWOOD EFFECTS ,,i bj 

'■'■ 

n verted into a pai 
room m< <t a rod far 






PANEL USAGE— In Order of Expense 

1/4- 3-PLY ROTARY PINE OR FIR PANELS 
4 X 8' APPLIED TO STUDS 




3/8" 3-PLY — 4 X 8' — OTHERWISE AS ABOVE 

ADVANTAGE OF 121 — INCREASED RIGIDITY AND THICKNESS 

3/4 ■ 5-PLY — 4 X 8 — OTHERWISE AS ABOVE 



4- X 8- PANELS ON STUDS AND APPLIED MOULDINGS 
PANELS CAN BE 1 / 4" — 4' x &' 3-PLY OR 3/8" — 4x8' 3 OR 5-PLY 



1 

L 


=| 






□ □ 

001 

bo 


6' 


Stud spacing 16" 



THIS SCHEME IS BASED ON THE USE OF LARGE PANELS AND THE COVERING OF MOST OF THE JOINT BY 
AN APPLIED PANEL MOULDING SO PUT ON AS TO FORM A PANEL MOTIVE. IT SHOULD BE QUITE INEXPENSIVE 
AND SHOULD HAVE A WIDE APPLICATION FOR BOTH NATURAL FINISH AND PAINTED WOOD WALLS. 



4- X 8' PANELS ON STUDS. APPLIED MOULDINGS AND CHAIR RAIL OR 4 x 6" PANELS 




SIMILAR TO (41 EXCEPT FOR ADDITION OF CHAIR RAIL 

ADVANTAGE OF (3) — SOMEWHAT BETTER FINISH THAN (4) 

' x 4' PANEL AREAS WITHOUT CHAIR RAIL COULD BE USED — WITH NO APPARENT ADVANTAGE 



4'xa'x3/8"OR 3/4" FIR OR PINE PLYWOOD ON 16 STUDS 
1/4" FINISH PLYWOOD APPLIED OVER THIS BASE 



' 




— 


m 










1 
















DD 

DD 

DD 
















1 

















CAN USE 12" — 13" — 24" — 32" TOP PANELS. 
CAN USE ANY FINISH WOOD 

CAN USE SQUARE BUTT JOINTS. "V JOINT. INSERT 
STRIP NARROW OVERLAP MOULDING. ETC. 

FINAL FINISH INDEPENDENT OF STUD SPACING 

CAN USE A VARIETY OF PANEL SIZES TOGETHER. 

FOR FASTENING TOP PANELS USE CEMENT. NAILS 
OR BOTH. 



DIRECTION OF GRAIN IN TOP PANELS CAN BE 
VARIED 

DOOR CAN BE COVERED TO MATCH WALL. 

THIS SCHEME IS APPLICABLE TO A GREAT VARIETY 
OF EFFECTS THROUGH THE USE OF DIFFERENT 
WOODS. SINGLY OR IN COMBINATION. CHANGE IN 
GRAIN DIRECTION. SIZE OF PANELS. INSERT STRIPS 
OR BEADS BETWEEN THE PANELS. 

COURTESY OF B EH R - M A N VI NG CO. 



[19] 




CROTCH— Shell Figure 






QUARTERED— Fiddle-back 
Figure, 2 piece matched 



QUARTERED— Flake Figure 




BASTARD CUT— Comb Grain 




STUMPWOOD— Heart and 

Sap Character 




CROTCH— Moon Figure 
2 piece matched 





QUARTERED— Rope Figure 



I 




I tit 11m! 

QUARTERED— Broken Stripe 





QUARTERED-Large Mottle, 
block figure 




* li 




CROTCH— Feather Figure 
2 piece matched 



CROTCH 









QUARTERED— Figured Stripe 
2 piece cathedral matched 






QUARTERED— Cross-figured 

Stripe 



QUARTERED— Pencil Stripe 
square matched 



mmm 



QUARTERED— Small Mottle, 
or Beeswing Figure 



QUARTERED— F 





* 



QUARTERED— Ribbon Stripe 

Figure 



J-ltc Uatietu or <=zJ tauten in Uc 



On this Spread are presented actual photographs 
of veneers representing nearly all of the major 
types of figure which are generally encountered. 
The photOgni ha arc arranged for quick and easy 
reference. Figure types and grain character in 
veneers are determined in five different ways. 
(1) B\ varying the direction in which the knife 
or taw paaaes through the wood. The quartered 
and fl.it cut types are determined in this way. 



cnect^ 



(2) By selecting different portions of the tree. 
Crotch and stumpwood types are examples of this 
•election. (3) By selecting those species in which 
the difference in color and density between spring- 
wood and summer-wood is distinct. (4) By cutting 
the wood in order to expose the rays, the end or 
curly grain, (5) By cutting the deformed or abnor- 
mal portions of a tree. Burls are an example of this 
method, and are generally produced on a lathe. 



-jTr U 



n . 



m 



< 



i 






I 1.1 



STUMP- 
WOOD 



-? - W, 



a 




STUM PWOOD— Highly Figured STUMP WOOD— Plain 

Reproduced through courtesy of the American Walnut Manufacturers' Association and "Homefurnishing Arts" 



STUMPWOOD-Oyster F.gure 
4 piece matched 




Pine Plywood painted white in B. Alt man & Co., New York 



CALIFORNIA PINE 



California Pine Plywood occupies a unique place in the Plywood industry. It is in the 
low priced field, fractionally higher in price than Fir. It has, however, a number of 
distinct advantages. It is lighter in weight, softer and of more uniform texture. It will 
paint or enamel far better than Fir because it will not check and the tendency of the 
grain to raise is slight. It is not a brash wood, permitting the edges to be smoothly 
moulded despite its veneer construction. California Pine Plywood lends itself admir- 
ably to re-veneering and effects substantial economies when so used as it is much less 
expensive than lumber strip cores and. as the surfaces are in a true horizontal plane, 
a sanded perfect surface is presented, entirely eliminating sunken joints frequently 
arising in improperly made lumber cores. 

California Pine panels are made in all thicknesses and in sizes up to CO" x 192". Sizes 
larger than 4' x 10' however have scarf joints in the faces because of lathe limitations. 
The 1/8" White Pine panel is a most useful product as it is extremely flexible and 
very useful for simple or compound curves. 

California Pine Wallboard is less expensive than the synthetic boards and infinitely 
superior. It is stronger, stiffer, lighter, paints very much better and requires less paint 
because the surfaces are not nearly so absorbent. 



DUAL! 



The Least Costly Fine Hardwood Panel 

Duali is our trade name for a Philippine wood of unusual characteristics which is 
manufactured into Plywood by applying the veneer to Fir cores or centres. By so 
doing a beautiful panel results, widely useful and at a cost substantially below any 
comparable product. 

The wood is hard, its color ranging from light to dark tan. Duali stains Walnut, 
Mahogany, Oak with remarkable fidelity to the woods which it simulates and is a 
perfect paint base. The veneers, all of which are rotary cut, are cut 1/12" or thicker 
eliminating any possibility of the Fir grain showing through the finish. Unlike many 
other Philippine woods, it is not hairy and nothing hut the usual finishing procedure 
is necessary. While new in its present form, we have marketed millions of feet of 
Duali Plvwood of different construction with complete satisfaction to our clientele, 
many of whom have favored us with letters praising its appearance and its behavior. 
All Duali Plywood is made with water-resistant glues and is available in standard 
sizes from any of our warehouses or cut to dimensions i«»r direct shipment in straight 
carloads or with Fir Plywood from our mill at Seattle. 



* Trade Mark Registered. 



[22] 




WELDWOOD * PLYWOOD is a trade-marked name given to Plywood manu- 
factured under the resin process as described on page 1 1 . It renders Plywood 
so manufactured absolutely waterproof and impervious to bacterial deteriora- 
tion and for the first time makes possible an absolutely unassailable product. 

Weldwood Plywood is being used for decks of sail boats. Weldwood can be 
safely used in damp climates without fear of separation and therefore should 
be specified in any woodwork, whether interior panelling or furniture, which 
is subject to a considerable degree of moisture. 

Panelling in ocean liners and yachts as well as veneered furniture used aboard 
such vessels should be manufactured under the Weldwood process. We will 
unconditionally guarantee Weldwood Plywood against separation under all 
conditions. The additional cost is slight. 

Resin gluing is undoubtedly the most important contribution to veneering. It 
has opened up for Plywood tremendous fields such as the pre-fabricated 

houses, outdoor signs and marine work where hitherto the use of Plywood has 
been very definitely limited because of the inability to produce an absolutely 
waterproof panel. 



OUTSIDE WALLS 

Weldwood has all the properties required for use in exposed places. A close 
grained surface wood such as Poplar or Birch is desirable for such use because 
the checking tendencies are less than on soft woods and because it presents a 
better painting surface with no grain raise. Weldwood in natural woods such 
as Walnut and Oak may be specified for exteriors including store fronts or 
building facades. 

The Weldwood process has so extended the logical use of Plywood that archi- 
tects and engineers must view it in the light of a new material. \ 

* Trade Mark Registered. 

| See table of engineering data, p. 33. 



Amphi-craft 



COURTESY OF HERRESHOFF 



Hot plate press 



rOlRTF^Y OF ALCOMA PLYWOOD CO. 






PLYWOOD 



IN SHIPBUILDING 



I 



i TLAHStan 






I 

* 



YACHTS 

i 

Mi, CoRNLUt'fc Vi m.i H 



I 

• 
I ■: I* i|> il *..« ,.j li. J >. 1" I...V Ih.Ii ii« liWiriJ «1« j,f lidiH'- ..{ ...ih*i ij|m.m 










HI 




' j ...... 



., 



8* 





Avodire Crotch 



Brazilian Rosewood 



Bubinga 



COURTESY. "AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



PLYWOOD IN THE FURNITURE FIELD 

Tremendous quantities of Plywood are used in the manufacture of furniture and radio cabinets because of the beauty 
obtainable in matched veneers and the superior strength and workability of laminated wood. It is interesting to point out 
that Plywood is more expensive than solid wood. Unfortunately the term "veneers" carries to most people a sense of some- 
thing cheap or inferior. Actually a good Mahogany Plywood top (usually 13/16" 5-ply) costs more than one of solid 
Mahogany. 

The beautiful appearance of furniture and radio cabinets is obtained by carefully selecting and matching figured woods. 
Even the hidden parts, drawer bottoms, backs, etc., are made of Plywood because of great strength and freedom from 
warping, and light weight. 

Furniture Plywood is made to order at the mill in exact accordance with the manufacturers' specifications, either flat or 
curved. It is furnished cut to size, nicely sanded, ready for machining and assembling. Because of our facilities we are in 
excellent position to handle this type of Plywood. 

Curved pew backs and seats are made with heavier Plywood, These are manufactured in special forms under great pres- 
sure. So manufactured, they will definitely maintain the desired shape. Many of the standard forms and shapes are avail- 
able at our mills and can be used without special surcharges. Special forms for modern furniture can be made to order to 
produce effects similar to the curved walls in the Men's Bar of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. 

SPECIFYING PLYWOOD 

A perusal of this booklet will show that there are many types of Plywood from the very inexpensive for minor and relatively 
unimportant uses to the highly ornamental or technical Plywood intended for exacting use. On the latter, specification by 
Plywood manufacturers' name is necessary because of the skill required in performing the intricate processes necessary to 
a perfect result. Lest this suggestion be misinterpreted, we wish to point out that there are a number of Plywood manufac- 
turers turning out a high-class product, three of whom make a fine resin Plywood such as Weldwood, but as the competitive 
contractor is not apt to be a judge of fine Plywood, the names of manufacturers should be used and the words "or equal" 
should be omitted. 

The United States Plywood Company, Inc., is the largest organization of its kind. It maintains warehouses from Coast to 
Coast and has one of the largest and most modern manufacturing plants located at Seattle, Washington, a Flexwood plant 
at Louisville, Kentucky and co-operating hardwood panel plants in the East and Middle West. It conducts its own fleet of 
trucks for delivery and has a sales personnel available in any part of the United States. 



[251 



m^mki: 




The office of Patrick J. Hurley in Washington, D. C. showing bare 
walls before Flexwood installation. 




flexiuooiJ 



Flexwood is genuine wood veneer cut to 1/85 of an 
inch, glued under heat and hydraulic pressure to cotton 
sheeting with a waterproof adhesive, A patented flexing 
operation breaks the cellular unity of the wood to pro- 
duce a limp, pliable sheet which may be applied by 
hand to any smooth surface, flat or curved. Waterproof 
Flexwood cement, which makes a permanent bond, is 
used to apply Flexwood. Standard sizes of stock mate- 
rial are 18 inches and 24 inches wide and eight foot 
and ten foot lengths. 

Dry plaster, steel, Fir plywood, hard wallboards, tile, 
marble, asbestos, glass, etc., make perfect backgrounds 
for Flexwood treatment. Sheets may be hung horizon- 
tally or vertically for modern sheer wall treatments or 
for Georgian or classical panel designs. Inlays and 
murals are produced by combining various woods. 

Columns, round or square, can be completely wrapped 
with Flexwood. Sharp corners and fluted pilasters are 
treated as easily as plane surfaces. 

THE MECHANICS OF INSTALLATION 

Mechanically, Flexwood is very simply installed. The 
background is sized with Flexwood cement. Another 
coating of cement is brushed on the Flexwood which is 
then hung in the manner of any sheet wall covering. 

A stiff broadknife, used with considerable pressure, 
smooths out the Flexwood, removes air spaces and fur- 
nishes the necessary contact. Any skilled paperhanger 
can do a perfect job by following printed instructions. 
Flexwood, because it is wood, takes any wood finish. 



[n this 



X 



Mr. Hurley's office after Flexwood installation, showing the use 
Walnut Flexwood in panelled treatment — a lovely, mellow effect 
achieved quickly and without extravagance. 



[26] 




In this typical office installation a strikingly beautiful effect was 
obtained with Half-round Walnut Flexwood in Georgian panel design. 




This charming Colonial bedroom uses Knotty Pine Flexwood to achieve 
its cosy luxury. 




HOW FLEXWOOD MAY BE USED 

Flexwood in the hands of the designer is a tool as 
essential as metal, paint or glass for creating modern 
effects. Its uses are limited only by the ingenuity of 
the designer. 

Flexwood treatment is not to be confused with any 
other means of creating wood interiors. Instead of tak- 
ing the place of cabinet work, the two are frequently 
combined by using Flexwood for curved surfaces, 
wrapped columns, etc., and Plywood for the panelled 
sections. In many cases flush treatment can only be 
accomplished with Flexwood and its definite economy 
when used in this manner makes it possible to create 
a wood interior for little more than the cost of a paint 
or paper treatment. 

The definite economy of Flexwood is particularly em- 
phasized when it is used in buildings governed by city 
fire ordinances. 



WOODS AVAILABLE 

Rare and exotic woods from all corners of the earth 
are available in Flexwood, making it possible to create 
and execute distinctive interiors in from 25-50% of the 
time normally required. Wood selections can be made 
from actual flitch samples. Some of the woods avail- 
able are: 



Mahogany 
Walnut 
Oak 

Prima Vera 
Redwood Burl 
Knotty Pine 
Orientalwood 
Satinwood 
Zebrawood 
Claro Walnut 



Harewood 
Macassar Ebony 
Tamo 
Rosewood 
Butt Walnut 
English Oak 
Maple 
Avodire 
Lacewood 
Crotch Mahogany 



Flexwood meets every decorative requirement in the 
field of homes, offices and institutions. When the luxury 
obtainable only with genuine wood treatment is desired 
and economy and time are imperative, Flexwood is 

the answer. 



A handsome living-room with matched Walnut Flexwood p< 

an apartment high above New York in the new Waldorf-Astoria 

Towers. 



[27] 



- 



T 




tl 



ecotdltvc 



MICARTA 



A Modern Material for Interiors and Exteriors 



Fascinating things are being done with the new Westing- 
house product MICARTA. Technicians describe it as a com- 
bination of synthetic resin and paper or fabric. 

The designer of furniture and of architectural exteriors m 
interiors discovers that Micarta is stronger than castiron; that 
it has 90 per cent of the tensile strength of aluminum yet only 
half the weight. He finds it resilient and flexible, for applica- 
tion to rounded surfaces; but tougher than a fine hard wood, 
and even easier to saw or fit into place, because it has no 
"grain" and will not split or check. It is not affected by water, 
oil, dilute mineral acids and alkalies. Heat does not injure 
it up to 250° F. But, most important of all, its processes of 
manufacture give it a glass-smooth finish in any color or 
design, making it ideal for interesting effects in the finest 
modern spirit. 

Although the flexibility of its manufacturing methods permits 
remarkably natural reproductions of wood, marble, or opaque 
glass, the finest results with Micarta have been achieved by 
those who recognized that it was not a "substitute" for any 
other material, but a new material with its own individual 
beauties and advantages. With Decorative Micarta available 
in more than thirty-two standard colors and designs, the basic 
field of application lies in creating new decorative effects 
rather than in imitating the old. 

Decorative Micarta is designed for two principal classes of 
application, veneering and paneling. Furniture, stores and 
office equipment, wainscoting, ceiling work, bases, chair rails, 
filler boards, etc. belong to this first classification. For veneer- 
ing purposes Micarta sheets are supplied in thicknesses of 
] i<; in., %2 in -> an d Vs in. in standard sizes of 48 in. x 96 in., 
36 in. x 72 in., and 48 in. x 48 in. The sheets may be glued or 
cemented to plywood, wood compositions and metal, or 
molded to other plastic materials as required. 

Paneling applications include construction work of all kinds, 
such as wainscoting and partitions. In the case of certain 
colors and kinds of Micarta it includes store fronts, signs and 
other exterior work. In ship-building and airplane construction 
both the sheet and panel have been used successfully. For 
paneling applications Micarta is supplied in three forms: 
Micarta Preswood, %% in - an d %2 i n - thick; Micarta Wemcore 
(a specially-treated core material developed and used by 
Westinghouse) 5 f 5l > in., 1 i in. and n /ic in. thick; and Micarta 
Asbestos 14 in. and 7 /w in. thick. 

Micarta is less expensive than most other materials commonly 
used for table tops, soda fountains and bars. It compares in 
first cost with the best grades of wood veneer, but because it 
will never need refinishing it actually costs less than wood 
in the long run. The application of Micarta to Plywood, and 
other surfaces is simple and can be done successfully by any 
furniture or fixture manufacturer or cabinet maker. 

Compared with other materials that have been used for 
kitchen and bathroom walls, Micarta has many distinct ad- 
vantages. Usually, these rooms are subjected to moist, 
steamy, atmosphere that very quickly destroys the finish and 
appearance of most materials. Micarta stands up under these 
conditions. It retains its lustre, color, and new appearance. 

Micarta is especially valuable in remodeling and moderniza- 
tion work. It is easy to apply to plastered walls and can be 
cut and fitted with ordinary tools. 




Micarta bathroom at the home of Mr. G. J. Pettits, Peekskill, New York. 

• OPERATIONS IN MICARTA VENEERING 

FOR MANUFACTURING TABLE TOPS, BARS, COUNTERS, ETC. 

NOTE: 1NLAV PLAT I TO BE 
VENEEGED \UOULD BE ONE TNCU 
LONGED EACU DTttE NITON. 




^LU?N4 ED£E \TRTPi 
ED<iE ^TRTPS £LUE0 TO 
EXTEND ADnnOA.H* AriOVE 
AND ftt LOW CACE OC CODE. 
VUEN DRY, PLANE CLUiU. 




TNLAY \UEETt OC 0VTCAOTA 
UELD ?N ALUN/ACNT TbV 
LUE OE WOOO BLOCK*. 




jOQIU J/M UOLfc} COO W1IH ftOAOV 



— 



a mi 



_ 



: 



\ECOND STEP 
ailTN^ TOP AND DOTTOASUEETV 

CUT WTCADTA SUCtTS tfOVCDUZE 
TO £TVE ADPDOX. % OV EQUANT 
ON ALL EDIES TO TAKE CADE 
OC SLTPPAAt TN £LU:N£. 



DET A!L SUOVTN4 BLOCK* 
UOLD'N^ MUADTA TN PLACE 





[28] 



0DC*,\ TOP AND BOTTOM \UCEH 
CUHU V,TU COiC iTPTPt APPTNi 
SLTiUT BEVEL. UVE \UAP[R 
OQ UANDPLfcNE AND EJNMU 
VTTU CUE AND \AHDDAPE0. 



RABBETED WOOD \TP!P 
USED A* \TOP AND itTDC 
VUEN £LUTN£ EHUE 
fTDTPl WITH uod:zontal 
'. N L A Y. 




The "Mark Twain" Latest of the Burlington Zephyrs. 

Stainless Steel Armor ply deadlight (upper outside) 

panels. 



:'::>. 



: 




ARMOR PLY 

METAL FACED PLYWOOD— LIGHT YET STRONG 
STRUCTURAL AND DECORATIVE 

To meet fhe engineering requirements of light weight with maximum 
strength, ARMORPLY metal-faced Plywood is offered in a number of 
constructions with various combinations of metal. 

ARMORPLY exterior panels as used in the Burlington Zephyrs and similar 
type high speed trains is a combination of l/ 4 " Plywood, .0156 18-8 stain- 
less steel and 2-ounce copper. For the panelling of truck bodies in such 
fleets as the Borden Company, Moran Transportation, Metropolitan Dis- 
tributors and others, the ARMORPLY used is a combination of l/ 4 " or 3/ 8 " 
Plywood with a facing of thin galvanneal steel. This construction is available 
from stock in many sizes and has many structural applications. 

Long before there was official agitation for greater safety at sea ARMOR- 
PLY, with its fire-resisting metal face, was being used for protection against 
fire. For maximum efficiency the Plywood can be fireproofed by impreg- 
nation. It is an ideal construction for stateroom partitions. 

Manufacturers of fine hospital and restaurant equipment find many uses 
for ARMORPLY with a facing of Monel Metal, Allegheny steel, stainless 
steel or chrome plated metals. 

For store fixtures there is a special ARMORPLY construction for show 
case doors. It consists of a steel core with veneer crossbands and selected 
matched veneer faces. This panel remains perfectly flat and can be used 
in a y 8 " thickness or less. 

Modernization of old elevator cars Is simplified by using another special 
ARMORPLY construction. ARMORPLY of l/ 4 " thickness, galvanneal faced 
two sides and weighing only 2.4 lbs. per square foot is generally used. 
When a wood finish is required, one metal surface is faced with 1/28" 
veneer of any kind. Panels of l/ 2 " or %" thickness are sometimes used 
for doors. 

ARMORPLY can be worked with average shop equipment, cut on a band 
saw, nailed, drilled, routed and bent when necessary. 




Part of a fleet of more than 100 Armorply bodies operated by Moran Transportation Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



[29] 



: .-:-u:<"\-.\'; 



GLOSSARY OF PLYWOOD TERMS 

BACK-The veneer sheet on the underside of a plywood panel, corresponding in thickness, frequently in wood, 
to the face veneer on the upper or exposed surface. 

BURL-A type of figure produced by cutting through burls, which are wartlike protuberances on trees. They 
contain the dark pith centers of a large number of undeveloped buds. 

CHECKS— Small hair-line splits which generally occur only in finely figured crotches and burls, caused chiefly 
by strain produced in the seasoning. 

CORE — The center stock of a plywood panel. 

COUNTER FRONTS— Lumber core Plywood, usually twelve feet wide, the face grain of which runs vertically 

with the short dimension. 

CROSS-BANDING— The veneer sheet between the core and the face veneer. Its grain runs at right angles to 

the grain of the core. 

CROTCHWOOD— Highly figured veneer produced from that portion of a tree where two limbs unite. 

FACE VENEER— The veneer sheet on the upper side of a plywood panel. Its grain runs parallel to the grain 
of the core and crosswise to the grain of the cross-banding in 5 ply construction. 

FIGURE— Figure is the pattern formed by peculiar or abnormal arrangement of the elements within the tree; 
by reflected light caused by that arrangement, or by the exposure of the medullary rays. 

FLAT GRAIN— Refers to the grain produced in approximately tangential or plain cut veneers. 

FLITCH— (a) A hewn or sawed log or a section of a log made ready for cutting into veneers by shaping up 
the edges, etc. (b) After cutting a complete bundle of thin sheets laid together in sequence as they were 
sliced or sawn. 

GRAIN— A rather loose term applied to the alignment and arrangement of cells and other elements of wood as 
it occurs in the living tree. 

GRAIN CHARACTER— The pattern produced by cutting through growth rings and exposing the layers of 

springwood (porous) and summerwood (dense) and of prominent vessels, thus producing a varying pattern. 

HALF-ROUND— A method of cutting veneer to bring out certain grain character, accomplished in a manner 
similar to rotary cutting except that the piece being cut is mounted, off center, on a "stay log, a device that 
permits the cutting of the log on a wider sweep. 

HARDWOODS— General term used to designate the lumber produced from broad-leafed or deciduous trees in 
opposition to the so-called softwoods, those produced by evergreen or coniferous trees. 

HEARTWOOD — The inner, matured portion of the tree, darker in color. 

KNOTS— Cross section of a branch or limb whose grain usually runs at right angles to that of the piece in 
which it occurs. 

KNOTS, PIN— A knot less than 1/4 -inch in diameter which obviously shows a distinct central portion, as dis- 
tinguished from swirls. 

LUMBER CORE CONSTRUCTION— Plywood core a center of narrow edge glued strips of lumber. 
PLY— A term that designates the number of layers or laminations of a plywood panel as 3-ply, 5-ply, 7-ply, etc. 

QUARTERS— Quartered or striped wood are sheets where quartered grain predominates with little or no heart 
grain. Quarters are produced by removing the center (or heart grain) from the sheets, or by cutting quartered 
flitches. 

ROTARY CUT A manner of cutting veneer by which the entire log is mounted centrally in a lathe and turned 

against a broad cutting knife which is set into the log at a slight angle. 

SAPWOOD — The outer living portion of the wood in a tree. 

SLICED A manner of cutting veneer by which logs or sawn flitches are held securely in a slicing machine 

and passed across a large knife which shears off the veneer in sheets. 

STUMPWOOD— Obtained from the base or stump of a tree. Figured stumpwood occurs where the wood fibre is 

crinkled into wavy ripple marks during the process of growth. 

SWIRLS— (a) The small spots developed by irregular grain adjacent to a pin knot, usually where the black 
center of the pin knot itself does not show, is also described as a swirl or cat eye. These usually are but a 
fraction of an inch in diameter, (b) Irregular grain, usually surrounding knots or crotches. Small sheets with 
swirl figure are produced for overlays and small matched panels. 

VENEER CONSTRUCTION— Plywood made entirely of Veneers. 



[JO] 



AVAILABLE WOODS FOR SPECIAL PLYWOOD NOT CARRIED IN STOCK 



NAME 



TEXTURE 



COLOR 



FIG I UK 



ORIGIN 



ri:\i \hk^ 





Acle 

Almique 

\ in .r i n 1 1 1 . 
Amboyna Burl 

Andiroba 

Apple 

Ash (American) 
Aah (English) 



hard 
. medium 

vt*r> hard 

very hard 

medium 

hard 

medium 
. medium 

mediom 



\sh (Machine Cut; medium 

Ash (Japanese) . 

Wi | Hungarian) medium 

Aspen medium 



A ytnlirf 
A>ou-> 



mrdium hard 
medium 



ycJkra 

dark broa n 
reddisti brown 
purple 
light brown 

brown 

light 

litfht brown 

light 

light 

SEE TAMO 

light i. in 
light 



light yellow 
light yellow 



mild 

mild 

mild to hi_'ti 

curly 

stripe 

plain 

medium 

medium 

scalloped 



britli.uit 
strong 



strong 
stri(M- 



.\*-,ir Baal 
Philippines 
Guiana an-l I 

Guiana 
Sooth \iruri. . 

i a v. 

i - \ 

i ind 

i >. a. 



Hungary 

I - V. 



Mm i 

Mm ■ 



Mostly Bead Fat inlay 
( tlh.-r nain«- Turpi- t 

\ my Beautiful; quite eapi 
v Ford Co. i.rodu* i . 

-r inlays and turnery. 

AJso to be had in burb. Simil.ir in a|>- 

i > I i t e w ood 
Cut with »,iv) knife, pvodocUMJ 
BaJajBU agave. 

.1 *.H„1 

,ii. .| Sih oi I 
1m- h.ul in high!) figured crofc I 

fr-fin 
Soaaatai While 

in .(.. . 



Ralsa v.ry soft 



Riilaustre. . 

*O0d. 

Boiowood 

Beeoh 

Beefwood. 



Itrihobara 

Birch 

Birch (Curly> 



Birch (Swediab) 

HI.h k wood 

Bodl 

Ifosse 
Bubinge 

Kill llTUIlt 



hard 

soft 
. hard 
. hard 
. vrrj fa ml 

hard 

hard 

hard 
hard 

I. ird 
hard 

hard 
hard 
med iom 



while 

«>r • r i _' . - 
white 

brow n 

pals < hi i 

red 

brow n 

whittr 

r>-<i <ir white 
yi-llow ahite 

d brown 
yrllnw i->li J jr> >*v n 
Ught in J 



,11. 






ml .liuiu 

aoaa 

plain lo at nj>»- and curl 

mild 

mdd 

mil. I 
....I.I 

§a iii. 'i 

hi. j mill 1 1»- 
r<i|w .tin! broken ^in|«- 

dk. walnut 



Be mi, 

Be Vrnerica 
i B I 
kuatral ■ 

i S v .,1 i 

BffMUUB < .•.tana 

I - \ 
i B. A. 

Bojoaaw 

I Mill 1111 . 

\lr». i 
I B V 



Id. lightest wa**l in weight; little 

-a. v%..rk 
\N,-|| t il) WOrhed 

h..r inlays 1 1>« wolu. u>w bauaawol 

Beefwood 
Oilj aood n.-i u I 

r.ir u 

i. . t ^ Karl) Vi.i- 

I ,.,.,.- burl 



Sometimes . ailed * <>> i 



I .in i on 
< ..ui.iry 



' , .1 ir Vurotii ilii Red 

( . ■« l.ir s |> mi I' 
* lurry 

( In i. -In in 

Ml.. 



< orili.i 

, < roleh 



. hard 

soft 

.milium 

hard 

hard 

. hard 
hard 

MM 'Illlll. 



Deo 

I regime I Leu to \n I 



h.inl 
in. diura 



I l...ny (< . ,i.. .. . . 

I'.Imhiv (Mace '. - 

I In. i Carpathian Burl) 

I liu i English) 

Eucalyplui 

I lot isa 



Freijo 



i . i , hard 
vrry hard 
in. dium 
medium 
medium 



in. dium 



* ioncalo \ l\ • • 

I .i 1 1 Mi i 

' ti.iiii.it • 

< iurjoo 



medium 

ii .il 



rlarewood 

II | 1 . W 1 .. .. t 1 . 1 1 > 

M..ll> Ul.it. 

lb. My i Khom/t'd 


Mil -llillll 

mi-diuui 

1, ...1 

hard 


1 mbiiya 


hard 


1 ii r il. 


hard 


Jeniaero 


Kelohra 



KJngwood hard 



koko 



Ii ir.l 
bird 



Laoewood t Silk y Oak) 
Laaral | Baal Indian 

I Ulhl 



II .. .1.11... 
medium 



Madroue Hurl 

M ihngan] km an) ... 

Mahogarrj (Cuban) 

M uhogany I Vfexii .... i 

Mahogany (PhiliDpin* 

Mahogany <,S.»n Lkomincu 

Mahogany (S.,,h-U- 
\l tidou Hurl 

\l uagua 
Manaooie 

laager. 

\1 iple Rirdaeye 

Maple (Curl) 

Maple (Quilted) 

Maple t kuetrahan) 

Maple t Burk 

Maple I kaetr diaa Rm i> 

Maraal 

Marupe 

Myrtle Hurl . . 



medium 

m.-« liuiu 

hard 
hard 
medium 

h mi 
h .r.l 
in. .(mm 

hard 

hard 

v.tn hard 

\.ry h.ird 

. hard 

medium 

hard 
hard 

fa *r-t 
soft 

'mm 



reUoa with 

<i..rk Btfl 

red 

red 
light rod 

brown .m-i y- ll'.w 

yillow brov* n w.lli 
,. ,k . 

reddish 

y.-llow 
brown t 

ind black 



Hlroi.K 

laaag 



plain lo brohi 
hiflhl] 

iH-auti ful 

uid mid i le 

I 



in. dium 
i tripe 



brown 









Hr ./.I 
I B V 

\l... i 

Waal i 

v 

l S V __^__ 

i'lnlil | 

v 

Mr i. i 

» ...I iad 



lik. i > . i > mil. I m 

..I *.H,| 



v m«ll quau titiefl 



• » > 

V M. tl N lllll . it. I if I ».«»l 






- v m . ia coci - 
yaUoa 



Mriaa 






v 






wh.O* 
hi... k 






l.rnw n 



bright l.rt. k red 

- VMI S - 

,kr«l with hi >• 

i .rk bn m n 






I 



v 






mild 



row ii 
reddish hn.wn 






-on I 









Hurmol. 

I 



little 

in H ilniii 



- 



ii.nk i i-i 
r.-d (<> r.d I 

red 

r«'d 

r-d 

■ad 

aaaaal araai ■ 

»hii.- 
>%tul«' 

li^h I n-d 

nil 

ti*ht mi 



- 

mild 
m. .liuiu 



I - V 






. faaaaaj • raai hai 









• 



. inn.' 



■ : 



1 



.ii»:ti 









Re 






,tri(-- .ml p '•" 



H».ilii.|.i.i.- I 






AVAILABLE WOODS FOR SPECIAL PLYWOOD NOT CARRIED IN STOCK (continued) 

NAME TEXTURE COLOR FIGURE ORIGIN REMARKS 

qTT medium toll varied U.S.A. Red, white, plain and quartered 

Oak (English) '. ! 1 1 '. *. *. ! ! ! ! *. ! hard brown deep subdned England ^i^hed f'pXrd Oak J*"* 

Oak (Tasmanian) hard brown wild Tasmania Known as Yuba. 

QrienTa^od ". '.'.'.'. . ! '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. ! medium jjgjjt brown pronounced x-fire Australia Sometimes called Oriental Walnut. 

j» aiiouk hard blood red uniform Africa Also known as Corail and \ ermillion. 

Pear wood ". '.'.'.'..'.'.'. sort yellowish red good Europe 

Peroba hard rose mi d Brazil 

Pine (White) soft white mild Idaho (U. S. A.) 

Pine (Knotty) soft white selected knots U. fa. A. _ 

Pine California) soft yellow white medium California Usually rotary cut for paint work. 

Poon hard pinkish plain India Practically none available commer- 

cially. 

Poplar (Whitewood) soft yellow none U. S A For painting and staining. 

Prima Vera (White Mahogany), .medium yellow white stripe and x-fire Central America Rich satinhke wood. 

Purpleheart see amaranth __ 

Redwood Burl soft deep red intricate swirl California 

Rose Laurel hard tan mottle Australia 

Rosemay hard pinkish grain figure Australia Little available commercially. 

Rosewood^Brazii) hard dark red high Rower — dark and Brazil Usually cut rotary or half-round, pro- 

light duciug beautiful effects. 

Rosewood (East Indian) hard straw— to dark red l\ripe East Indies 

Rosewood (Honduras) hard medium red high flower Honduras Lighter in color than other Rosewood. 

Sabicu ....... .hard brown mottle, stripe and grain West Indies 

Samba* ".'.'."" '.'. '. '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'.'. 'soft cream gray stripe Africa 

Santa Maria medium pinkish plain Central America Used particularly for drawer bottoms; 

not a high class cabinet wood. 

Faux Satine soft light yellow very pronounced U. S. A. Cypress Crotch. 

Satima (French) hard red brown mild F / an ^ 

Satinwood (Brazil) hard light yellow stripe and cross-fire Brazil 

Satinwood (East Indian) hard light yellow stripe and flower East Indies The true Satinwood. 

Sequoia (Redwood) soft red pronounced U.S.A. 

Sisso hard yellowish brown stripe and mottle India 

Spruce (Knotty) soft yellow branch and round knots U. S. A. Simulates English Deal. 

Sycamore (U. S. A .')'. '. ". '. '. '. '. ". '. ! '. ". medium hghl brown interesting flake U. S. A 

Sycamore (English) medium white heavy cross-fire England Harewood undyed. 

Xaku hard brown stripe and mottle South America 

Tamo (Japanese Ash) '.'.'.,. medium tan swirl and peanut Japan A gorgeous lively wood. 

Teak (Java) hard warm brown mild to medium Java 

Teak (Rangoon) hard warm brown mild to medium Africa 

Thitka hard mahogany stripe and mottle India 

Thuya Burl. ... . medium rich red brown curly swirl French Africa 

Tigerwood hard light brown narrow stripe Africa Sometimes called African Walnut. 

Tulipwood. ..!.....!........ .hard light streaked light, streaked with red 

and yellow 

Walnut hard brown highly varied U. S. A. Obtainable in stripe-heart burls and 

crotches in wide variety. 

Walnut (Brazil) hard deep brown pronounced Brazil Also known as Imbuya. 

Walnut (Circassion) . .......... .hard light brown and strikingly strong Asia Oue of the very fine cabinet woods. 

black light brown with black 

Walnut (Italian) hard light brown stripe Italy Somewhat lighter in tone than Ameri- 

can Walnut. 

Walnut (French! hard light brown stripe France Similar to Italian. 

\\ , irr [ hard tan stripe, butt and mottle Australia 

Whitewood... . '.'. '. '. . '. see poplar 

Yuba hard brown oak type Tasmania Also called Tasmanian Oak. 

strong x-fire 

/(•hra '. hard black and tan like Zebra skin Afrit a Used frequently for modernistic work 



PLYWOOD CARRIED IN STOCK 



NAME 


TEXTURE 


COLOR 


FIGURE 




REMARKS 


Ailon 


. . hard 




white 


mild 




Extremely smooth surface. 




. soft 




white 
white or red 


unfigured 
mild figure 






Birch 


. hard 




Cedar 

Chestnut 


. . . soft 
. soft 




bright red 
brown 


highly figured 
highly figured 




aromatic 


Duali ... 


hard 




light tan 


medium figure 




Excellent ; inexpensive. 


Fir 


medium 




yellow 


wild figure 




Inexpensive 


( iiiin ( Plait) ) 


... medium 


hard 
fiard 


reddish brown to white 
reddish brown 


mild ligure 

very highly figured 






Gum (Figured) 


medium 


Cabinet wood. 


(Oriental wood) 


. hard 




light brown 


highly figured ; stripe or cross-fire 




Mahogany (African) 


. . hard 




red 
white 


(carried in) stripe, broken stripe, 

plain and cross-fire 
(carried in) birdseye, curly, unse- 

lected and plain white 




Maple 


hard 




Oak ... 


hard 




tan 


(carried in) quaitered large Hake 
or mild figure, plain sawn and 
rotan < "' 





Pine (California \N hitej soft 

Pine (Knotty Idaho j soft 

Poplar (Whitewood) soft 

Prima-Vera (White Mahogany) medium hard 



yellow — white 
white 

yellow 



excellent painting surface 
bmQj worked inexpeawve. 

carrying small well distributed 

sound knots 
unfigured 
stripe figure 



\\ alnut (American black) hard 

Walnut (Circassion) hard 



light to dark brown 
light brown and black 



'carried in; stripe-heart, stripe 

and crow-fire figures 
highly figured 



[32| 



STRENGTH OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF 3-PLY PANELS 

All plies in any one panel of the same thickness and of the same species; gTain of successive plies at right angles. All 
material rotary cut. Vegetable glue used throughout. Eight thicknesses of plywood, ranging En ■ pen tested 



Species. 



A v or ape 

-[»<•< ih. 
uT.iv it v of 

band on 

oven-dry 
weight 

in.! wjI- 
ume at 



Column-bend inp modulus. 



Tensile Otraogtk. 



Modulus of • I 



Parallel. * 



Num- Pounds 
t.« t <A jmt square 
teats, im h. 



Perpendicular * 



Num- Pounds 
bat of per square 
tests. im h. 



Pirillol* 



Num- 
S00 of 



Pounds 

J Of HOI if 



Perpendicular.* 



Num- 
ber of 

Iflobi 



Pounds 
inch. 



Parallel 

1 nun 

poouooo 



Perpon- 
(1.000 

tin h 



Ash, black 

Aib, commercial white 

Baaswood 

Beech 

Birth, yello* 
Cedar, Spanish 

Cherry t 

( Ibeetnul 

( lottonwood 

( l yp r c s s , bald 

Douglas fir 

Emm, cork 

Dm, white 

( linn, black 

Gum, cotton 

Gum, i' 'i 

Hackberr) 

Hemlock, western 

Magnolia I 

Manogany, Afi 'n in 

Mahogany, Philippine 

Mahogany, true 

Maple, toft 

Maple, sugar 

( );ik, commercial red 

( ).ik, oommercia] whit 

Pine, white 

Poplar, yellon 

Redwood 

Spruce, Sitka 

Sycamore 

w limit, black 



ii 19 
.60 
12 
.67 
.67 
II 
56 
.43 
16 
17 
to 
62 
52 
".i 
50 
ii 
".I 
17 
59 
52 
53 
18 
57 
68 
59 
'.I 
i I 
".ii 
11 
n 
4 



120 
200 
200 
120 
193 
115 
113 

10 
120 

35 
150 

65 
160 

10 

ao 
182 

80 
1 19 

10 

20 

120 

115 
195 
35 
165 

103 

16.1 
110 



7 . 760 

9.930 

7.120 

15,390 

16.000 

6.460 

12.260 

5,160 

8 160 

7 . 830 

9, 160 

12.710 

o,6»0 

8 , 090 
7,760 

9 970 
8.100 
9,250 

8.070 
10. 160 

II ,540 
15,600 
8 500 

10 100 
8 . 860 

7,900 

7 010 
I I 04') 

I 



120 


1,779 


120 


200 




2oo 


200 


1.670 


2oo 


120 


2 950 


120 


200 


3,200 


2(10 


115 


1 , 180 


115 


115 


2 , 620 


115 


40 


1,110 


in 


120 


1,870 


120 


15 


1,820 


35 


171 


I 950 


171 


65 


2 500 




160 


1 970 


160 


10 


i 920 








80 






182 




1 




119 


1 


119 


10 


2 , a io 


to 


20 


2,000 


20 




2 110 






I 940 




120 




120 


202 




102 


115 


2 070 


115 


195 


1 


195 


10 


1,770 


10 




I 920 


165 


65 


1 , 500 


65 




I 689 


103 


163 


2,340 


163 


110 


2.770 


110 



6,180 
6 510 

13.000 
l I 200 

5 200 
8 loo 

I I 10 

6 960 
7,850 

In linn 

10,670 
6,390 

10.190 

I 

5 100 



120 
200 
200 
120 
200 
115 
115 

40 
120 

35 
171 

loo 

182 
80 

119 
10 
20 

120 

115 

195 

10 

165 

mi 
163 
no 



3 . 940 

4 . 300 
7 290 
7.700 
3 , 340 
". 920 
2 500 
I 240 

I ► 

4,320 

I 930 
I 020 

3.770 

I 

I 610 

1 200 

3.870 

1 720 
3,000 

• 
I 



I 073 

1.420 

1 213 
2 . 1 10 

1 , 032 

I 627 

7 11 

1,111 
I 566 

I 224 

1,275 

I 592 
I 1 5 1 
1.581 
1 ,704 
1,261 

1 ,820 

1,752 

2 112 

I 3 13 

1 , 544 
I 211 



96 
143 

85 
167 
197 

84 
152 

109 

oi 

12"* 

i 16 
109 
113 

111 
120 
oo 
112 
135 
i n 
169 
1 11 
i i i 

I 80 
120 

118 

US 
I lit 

105 

130 
III 



* PoroDol sad pisiBiaiWi oloi rata lo Iks daw Isbb d lis 

I l'rol„.l.l> l.l.i. k . I,, if , i rVok) ibl .■■•>-•• I I ' I ' - 



ADVANTAGES OF PLYWOOD OVER OTHER WALL MATERIALS 



1. Hicn Cri ihing Strength. 

2. RlSISl \n< I TO Si RFACI l>wi iCI OI GOI CIRC 

I Ease of Repaik or Si u *ci Dam uu> Ii 

( h I AM) Refdcish.) 

I. D ra Ivmi ,i vm» Cleahli With Common 

l OOL8. 

:>. Holds N\ii> (iom: id I-im.k Mo BtoEAJOHC 
oi Splitting, 

<». Comes in i \ irieti oi Sizes 



7. Om u \ um n i n i khaj I nam. 

//. \ii!iinil u | 

lac nntl U 

" unit \ urn 
h. I', unt § 
/. / 

• md f\ni>r\ 

;; l.nu Maim 

9. Ihheur i Beai it oi 1 
IOl Is the S kstKho Imi 

. 1 1- Yv 



PLASTER 
Ii expensive 

Slopp\ to envt 

Slow in building 

Dajnages building ihroogh nana 

Hard to tlry out 

Moisten danger, if not dried out 

1 a-dy damaged 



SUGAR CANE BOARD 

Lacks strai bn il ~ ; >' nglk 
Lsj b nailing stm 
Rough and al sorba 
Hard t<> paint 

roogb h*r paper 






GYPSUM BOARD 
Does not saw and work srell 



TESTS ON DOUGLAS FIR PLYWOOD 

Some materials sometimes used instead of Plywood were subjected to exactly the same 
tests — under exactly similar conditions. In fairness, letters instead of trade names have 
been used to designate these five materials. A and B are fiber insulating boards; C is 
a plaster board; D is a hard-compressed fiber board; and E is one of the old-style 
fiber wall boards. 

A number of samples of each of these materials — and of Douglas Fir Plywood — were 
subjected to each of the following tests, to establish an average strength value that 
would be eminently fair. 

The average moisture content of the Douglas Fir Plywood samples tested was 10%. 
All these tests were made by the Northwest Testing Laboratory, which in the Northwest 
represents the nationally known Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory. A complete log of any 
test sent upon request. 



COMPRESSION TESTS 

Two series of tests were made on Douglas Fir Plywood. 
In the first series the load acted parallel with the grain 
of the outside plies. In the second series the load acted 
across the grain of the outside plies. Only one series of 
testa \\u- necessary on the other materials, because their 
grain or fiber did not run in different directions. All 
compression test pieces were cut exactly 6x6 inches 
and bearing was obtained by placing the pieces in the 
testing machine and applying the load on the opposite 

edge. 



HEAT CONDUCTIVITY OF DOUGLAS FIR PLYWOOD 


Thickness 


Hrat-condueting value 


Inch 


B.t.u. per sq. ft. per 
degree r . pet hour 


1/4 


3.0 


3/8 


2.0 


1/2 


1.5 


3/4 


1.0 



TENSILE TESTS ON DOUGLAS FIR PLYWOOD 



■ 



Thickness I Width, in Ijrth .in. 






Ultimate 
load.Ibi. 



Load.lt*., 

Mj. II). 



Load Acting with the Grain of Outside Piles 



V.5-ply 


3 


18 


2 250 




4u74 




































47.V» 














V. 3-ply 


3 


18 






7901 



Load Acting Across the Groin of Outside Plies 



V.5-ply 


3 


18 


2 250 








3 








44<<l 








i :,imi 










H 






4141 






]H 










3 


18 


(1 562 







TENSILE TESTS ON OTHER MATERIALS 



■ 


s 




1 5(1 




















;; 






















1 


3 











I 
■ h*rd-oom pra — cd I b 

• ,rd. 



TENSILE TESTS 

\H in. 

8 inches. 

A- in the ooanpn aak 

acting parallrl *nli v ■ 

in the other, acros* the grain of the outride plica. 



[34 : 



COMPRESSION TESTS ON 
DOUGLAS FIR PLYWOOD 



Dimension of Test Specimen 



Thickness Width, in.j Lgth..in, 



Area, 

sq. in. 



Ultimate 

load, lbs. 



Load, lbs., 
sq. in. 



Load Acting with the Grain of Outside Plies 



3 4',5-pJy 


6 


6 


4 50 


18538 


4186 


5-ply 





6 


3 75 


10644 




V, 5 -ply 


6 


6 


3 oo 


10492 




•<-ply 





6 






2860 


V, 3-ply 


6 


6 


1 50 


4198 


2855 


He'. 3-ply 


6 


6 


] 126 


wu 


1917 



Load Acting Across the Grain of Outside Plies 



V,5-ply 


6 


U 


4 50 


152G2 


3436 


■*>-ply 




B 


3 75 




2472 


■'-ply 


G 


ti 


3 00 




2102 




B 






6206 


2180 


V.3-ply 


6 




1 50 




1 


V. 3-ply 


G 


6 


1 125 


B8Q 


BOO 



COMPRESSION TESTS ON OTHER MATERIALS 



A .500 


G 


6 


3 


680 


230 


li 4:*75 


B 


t. 


2 625 


448 


170 




6 


B 


1 50 




MO 


1) 1*75 


6 


G 


1 125 


846 




1. iv", 


6 







180 


146 



Mnt.-nul- A :it.(j H :in- fiber lrisu1:itui« board*. C is a \ 
i hard -compressed fiber boai 



TRANSVERSE TESTS ON DOUGLAS FIR PLYWOOD 



Dunenoon <>f I 



Width, in. | Length, In. 



Load.lfaa. 



ultimate 
load, in. 



Load Acting Across the Groin of Outside Plies 



«4'.5-ply 


G 


18 


ISM 


43 


'i-ly 




IS 










- 










IK 


434 


51 






]h 






*'. 


'. 


18 


214 


] Hi 



Load Acting with the Grain of Outside Plies 



V.5-ply 


G 






































V 


a 


18 


88 


1 M 



TRANSVERSE TESTS ON OTHER MATERIALS 





'. 


18 




16 


















4.' 
















6 




11 





baud I 
■eJ8jejj| 



fiber bomrxLE u at, old-rtyle 






TRANSVERSE TESTS 



Hen 



■CM iiu.b on tbr 

parall' 

j rid anottM 

U piece* were 6 inchet wide and 18 inches long. 
and tl ' -pan. 



FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY 

PREFABRICATION SYSTEM 

A NEW DEPARTURE IN ALL-WOOD HOUSING 

By 
GEORGE W. TRAYER, Senior Engineer 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FOREST SERVICE 
In cooperation with the University of Wisconsin 

Since its first demonstration at Madison, Wis., when it attracted thousands of 
visitors, the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's prefabricated all-wood house system 
has drawn many inquiries as to whether it was on the market, what it cost, and how 
it was made. 

From the outset the Laboratory made it clear that the demonstration house it built 
and exhibited represents a system under development, and not a commercial proposi- 
tion. Nevertheless, the wide interest registered from both public and trade sources 
warrants further description of the system at this stage for evaluation of its possibili- 
ties from a service and manufacturing point of view. 

It is well to point out, as a preface to such a description, that this house, aside from 
the plywood in its panels, uses about 5,400 board feet of lumber of various kimk 
All lumber, moreover, is used economically because of the system of prefabrication 
employed. Resultant reductions in cost of building if this type of housing goes even- 
tually on the market, should aid in its widespread adoption and consequently benefit 
the entire lumber industry. 

That its scheme of assembly is well adapted to the requirement of speed in construc- 
tion is attested by the Laboratory's experience with it. Figures 1 and 2 graphically 
demonstrate the rapidity of assembly possible. The house was erected complete in 21 
hours by seven men. 

UTILIZES BUILT-UP WOOD PANEL 
Like all prefabricated housing systems either under development or already on the 
market the Laboratory has as its basic structural unit a panel. Each panel consists 
of two'plvwood faces glued to either side of an inner structural framework to form 
what is virtually a box girder. The stressed covering principle on which it is built gives 
it the strength essential for high class construction. 

Contrasted with ordinary frame construction, stressed covering opens up a new range 
of strength and rigidity values with a minimum of material. In the usual floor tor 
example* subfloor and floor are nailed to relatively deep joists. While the subfloor 
when laid diagonallv stiffens the building to some extent, it contributes little to the 
strength of the underlying framework. Similarly, ceilings hung on floor joists are 
additional dead weight. ^ t 

In the Laboratory's panel, stressed covering incorporates into a single unit joists, sub- 




Figure I,- A fur 5tt hours >Ms much of the house had been completed. 

[35] 




Figure 2.- 



-Twenty-one hours from the time construction was begun the 
finished house looked like thi*. 



floor, and ceiling. Weight upon the floor is distributed through the joists to the plywood 
faces, so that the joists actually support only about one-fourth of the load. This unity 
of action is due to the complete and continuous rigid joint formed by the glue between 
plywood faces and joists. Such a joint cannot be produced by nailing. 
In like manner wall panels were made up of plywood glued to studding or strips. 
Wall panels for the demonstration house were built 4 feet by 8 feet of 14-inch 3-ply 
plywood glued on % by 1%-inch strips, which gives a total wall thickness of 1 7 S 
inches. The 1%-inch strips were chosen to conform with the thickness of light stock 
doors. Top and bottom members of the panel framework were set in ; *4 inch and the 
outside vertical members the same distance from the edges of the plywood faces, in 
order to provide the structural joints which will be described. 

Floor and roof panels also were built 4 feet wide in conformity with the regular mill 
width of plywood, and their length in the demonstration house varies from 8 to 14 
feet. Because of the strength inherent in this stressed covering type of panel a 2 by 6- 
inch structural member can be substituted for the usual 2 by 10-inch joist in conven- 
tional house construction. The upper face consists of ^s-inch plywood in five plies, and 
the lower of %-inch 3-ply stock. Within floor and roof panels a blanket insulator was 
attached as shown. 

Floor panels of this type were tested and found capable of sustaining maximum loads 
of 300 or more pounds per square foot over a 13 foot 6 inch span. Similarly, wall 
panels under the pressure of a 60-mile per hour gale would develop a fiber stress in 
the plywood less than one-third the allowable safe stress for the material. 

MULLIONS CONNECT WALL PANELS 

Vertical mullions built up of three pieces glued together are used to connect wall 
panels. Into parallel grooves of the mullions are fitted the plywood edges of adjacent 
panels. To protect the plywood edges from moisture and to prevent air infiltration, the 
grooves are coaled w ith a mastic before the panels are shoved home. Bottom projecting 
edges of the panel fit over a rabbeted sill member for connection between wall and 
sill, and similarly the top edges receive a ; ;4-inch by 1%-inch member glued to roof 
panels along wall and partition lines. 

Lateral edges of floor and roof panels are grooved to permit a spline connection for the 
distribution of weight to adjacent panels. A window system with sash larger than the 
opening, so that the window is hung outside the plane of the casing, was used. Head 
jambs and sill are completely assembled on the typical window panels, with hinges 
attached, ready to receive the sash. The closure between sash and casing is sealed with 
a spring bronze weather strip. A wooden drip cap provides protection at the head. 
Finished hardwood floors were laid in section- 1 feet square connected by T-shaped 
strips screwed to the subfloor. with the flanges of the T holding the squares down. 
Gum flooring was used in the bedrooms and oak in the living room. A special wood 
plastic developed by the Laboratory was used for the bathroom floor. 
The structure as erected includes all the combinations of panels which might obtain 
in even a large house, so that the connection problems and the necessary variations in 
panels could be studied in full scale. 

\ simple electric wiring plan was adopted for the demonstration house. Under a water 
table built around the outer base of the house a conduit was attached which supplies 



[36] 



all wiring for exterior wall panels. Into each panel the necessary connections were in- 
serted bet ore assembly. To supply wiring to inside partitions conduits were run under- 
neath the floor panels. Connections for power appliances, radio, and telephone were 
similarly installed in panels before assembly. 

Where the panels would be pierced by conduits or pipes they were reinforced by 
glued-in blocks. 

A considerably higher degree of insulating efficiency is obtainable with this type of 
panel, which is filled with loose insulation material, than with frame construction con- 
sisting of wood siding, wood sheathing, and lath and plaster interior. The plywood 




Figurf ::. - ( ttandard aw-mhly method f»r mill, Hoot and roof panait with 

mi'T mull i <>n and Standard mull ion. Cut-away views ihota i miliar tun on 

ptmca* 

panel is about equal to the above type of frame construction with %-inch flexible 
insulation added, but would be superior as regards air infiltration. 
The roof and floor panels of the type used, including %-inch flexible insulation, are 
far superior in insulating value to many common types of floors and roofs. 
Because this house was built merely to demonstrate a new idea in prefabrication, it 
was placed upon a timber foundation. \ concrete, stone, or concrete-block foundation 
could readily be installed beneath it with such additional features as basement furnace 
room and utility room. The demonstration house was. however, erected with hot-air 
heating unit in the living room and with a utility room between kitchen and bathroom 
for economy in installing plumbing fixtures and other appliances. 
The plan of the house includes a living room, two bedrooms, kitchen, bath and utility 
room, all in the space of 21 by 29 feet. Built-in features include a coat closet which 
screens the front entrance from the living room; a simple vanity and clothes closet in 
the master bedroom; a clothes closet in other bedroom; and essential cabinets in the 
kitchen, all made of lumber and plywood. These features are only incidental to the 
structural system and could be replaced by a wide variety of movables. In figure 1 i- 
shown the floor and room arrangement, together with all equipment and fixtures pro- 
vided. To present an appropriate and attractive interior, the demonstration home was 
furnished in modern style within the limitations of a moderate budget. 

TECHNICAL PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS 

Behind all systems of house p ref abrication, whether in wood, steel, or other materials, 
lies the same general idea — namely, to put the difficult, intricate part of the work 
inside the factory, thus reducing the time and expense of assembly on the site to a 
minimum and providing masses of the population with acceptable housing at a price 
within their reach. As one writer puts it. the objective i- '"to make home ownership as 
common in America as automobile ownership is today." 

The footage of dimension material as well as plywood Involved in a program of several 
hundred thousand four-to-six-room houses of the type here considered forms indeed an 
interesting prospect. Bui die point should not be overlooked that mass ownership of 
such things as automobiles today hinges not alone on cheap mass production but on 
all of that plus increasing precision control in manufacture. Accuracy of fitted part- 
means real performance, satisfaction in u^c fundamental desirability, the difference 
between success and failure. 



[37J 



The degree to which the woodworking factory can meet close tolerances in moisture 
condition and machining of the wood, can satisfy exact requirements in gluing, and 
can insure adequate provision against long-time weathering will determine whether the 
prefabricated all-wood house is to be a modern reality or just another experiment. 
The Forest Products Laboratory believes that, with the start that has been made, all 
such problems can be mastered. Its own machines have produced panels and mul lions 
that fit and that show no cumulative error of dimension as one part follows the other 
in enclosing the house. The material has been seasoned and conditioned in accord with 
the best technical rules and practice, and the method of painting, with two aluminum 
priming coats, has been verified by six years of test on experimental paint fences. 




Figure 4.— Perspective drawing of completed house with roof removed, 
showing flour arrangement and built-in features. 

For some purposes, the demonstration house might recommend itself as an investment, 
just as it stands, but the larger and more vital question is whether it and thousands to 
follow it will carry wood's fullest and most adequate contribution to the housing needs 
of the nation. This question deserves an early answer in the affirmative. 

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS 

The architectural question of variety versus monotony in appearance of large groups 
of the prefabricated type of house can be eliminated at the outset, since the basic idea 
in this development is not a unit house but a system of building units. The substitution 
of wall, floor and roof panels for smaller traditional integers such as bricks, boards, 
or slates actually insures wide flexibility in design of individual houses and admits of 
any size, number and arrangement of rooms desired. 

A remark often heard in viewing the demonstration house is: "It's got a flat roof!" So 
it has, with stairs and a railing, and so have 75 percent of the houses shown on plans 
submitted in a recent nation-wide General Electric contest to determine the best type 
of modern American home. The reason is economy, efficient utilization of space, an 
extra opportunity for the family to take the sun and air. Nevertheless, to please' all 
tastes and all purses, study might well be undertaken looking to the adaptation of roof 
units to a standard or variable pitch and to various types of prepared waterproof 
covering. 

Similarly, the Laboratory engineers look forward to the opportunity of comparing and 
testing out different materials and methods of panel insulation and determining the 
most practical permanent treatment of interior and interior surfaces, as well as adjust- 
ing construction details to full production and service requirements. It is felt, however, 
that a substantial beginning has been made toward the realization of a mass-production 
all-wood house on a strict economy basis, with adequate provision for an American 
standard of comfort and convenience. Active interest of the wood industries has stimu- 
lated development of the project to this point and is counted on to see it through to a 
definite and favorable outcome. 



[38] 



UNITED STATES PLYWOOD PRODUCTS 



WELDWOOD 

*PLYWOOD 

♦ARMORPLY 

*FLEXWOOD 

*MICARTA 
MARINE PLYWOOD 
FIREPROOF PLYWOOD 

FLEXMETAL 

RESINEER 



The first absolutely waterproof plywood made with the resins as a binder in place 
of glue. 

Of special construction including pew backs, curved plywood of all types and special 
construction for technical purposes. 

Plywood faced with metal of any kind, including galvanneal steel for painting, stain- 
less steel, copper, etc. Either flat or turned edges. 

Thin veneer mounted on cloth and made flexible for direct application to any surface 
flat or curved. 

A decorative resin product in sheets or mounted on plywood, for bars, table tops, etc. 

Specially designed for light weight, sound-proofing and high moisture resistance. 

Made in several different types, including chemically treated wood, asbestos shields, 
metal covering, etc. 

Veneer glued to metal with patented elastic glue; for industrial equipment, elevator 
cabs and curved construction. 

A thin veneer glued to composition board with resin. 
* Illustrated priced catalogs available. 




This truck has an upper panel of resin glued Weldivood with 
White Mahogany face and a lower panel of black Micarta 
with lettering of inlaid aluminum. 



BALTIMORE, MD. 
17 Guilford Avenue 

BOSTON, MASS. 

26 Lake Street (Somerville) 

CHICAGO, ILL. 
165 W. W acker Drive 



LOCATIONS 

DETROIT, MICH. 

1815 Franklin Street 

LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 
1920 East 15th Street 

PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

1109 N. Front Street 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
104 Atlantic Avenue 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 
90 Town send Street 

SEATTLE, WASH. 

1319 W. Nicker son Street 



PERMANENT DISPLAY OFFICES — 103 PARK AVE., NEW YORK CITY 

EXHIBITS 

ARCHITECTS SAMPLE ROOM - 101 PARK AVE.. NEW YORK CITY 
PEDAC - ROCKEFELLER CENTER, NEW YORK CITY 



UNITED STATES PLYWOOD COMPANY 

INCORPORATED 

603 WEST 36th STREET, NEW YORK CITY 



PRINTED IN U.S.A. 



PARKWAY PRINTING CO 
NEW YORK